Osservatorio Vesuviano
FALL3D (version 7.1) a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of tephra developed in collaboration with Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC). The model solves a set of advection-diffusion-sedimentation (ADS) equations on a structured terrain-following grid using a second-order Finite Differences (FD) explicit scheme. The model inputs are meteorological data, topography, vent coordinate, Eruption Source Parameters (ESP) such as column height, Mass Flow Rate (MFR), eruption duration, and Total Grain-Size Distribution (TGSD) which include particle shape and density information. Outputs are tephra ground load/thickness, airborne ash concentration and other related variables. The code, written in FORTRAN-90, is available for Unix/Linux/Mac X Operating Systems (OS) and can be compiled either as serial or parallel using MPI. A set of pre- and post-process utility programs and related scripts are also included in the FALL3D-7.1 distribution package. Several parameterizations can be chosen to describe eruption source geometry and physics, particle terminal settling velocity, eddy diffusivity tensor, and ash aggregation. For the meteorological variables FALL3D-7.0 uses an off-line strategy, i.e. variables are furnished by independent meteorological models or datasets and interpolated to the FALL3D-7.0 grid as NetCDF files. The FALL3D-7.1 model can be used to reproduce features of past eruptions, as a tool for short-term ash dispersal forecasting, and for volcanic fallout hazard assessment. Relevant changes have been introduced in FALL3D-7.1, including:
  • A unified source code for both serial and parallel versions (only the serial version was available for public distribution in previous releases);
  • The possibility of using forecasts/reanalysis meteorological data from several global/meso-scale meteorological models (not available for public distribution in previous releases);
  • Different parameterizations available for ash aggregation. For computational reasons, a preliminary Total Grain Size Distribution (TGSD) file (furnished either by the user or generated by the pre-process SETTGSD utility program) is modified in order to create the final "effective" granulometry file filename.grn which can include an aggregated class and a volatile species, treated as tracers;
  • An option describing the cloud spreading at the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL) for large eruptions using a semi-analytical gravity current model;
  • New parameterizations for resuspension of deposited volcanic ash by wind;
  • A parameterization to account for wet deposition;
  • Two new parameterizations to estimate cross-wind effects on Mass Eruption Eruption (MER);
  • A new multi-platform installation method that utilizes the configure command option. The program can be installed on different machines sharing the same filesystem or on a single machine that has different compilers.
See also the FALL3D-website at BSC.
  • FALL3D 5.0 (serial version. Released May 2007). Obsolete.
  • FALL3D 5.1 (serial and parallel versions. Released Jan 2008). Obsolete.
  • FALL3D 5.1.1 (serial and parallel versions. Released Jun 2009). Obsolete.
  • FALL3D 6.2 (serial and parallel versions. Released May 2010). Obsolete.
  • FALL3D 7.0: serial and parallel versions. Current stable release. Released Feb 2014.
  • FALL3D 7.1: serial and parallel versions. Release Feb 2016.
  • Package includes Fall3d 7.1 F90 source code, few examples of application and the of utility programs needed for building input files for Fall3d 7.1: SetBds (generates the Fall3d database files containing topography and meteorological data), SetTgsd (generates the total grain size distribution file needed by the utility program SetSrc), SetSrc (generates the source file and bulk granulometry file for Fall3d), Fall3d2GMT (utility program for visualizing Fall3d 7.1 output based on GMT).
  • Requirements: a F90 compiler, a C compiler and MPI for the parallel version, NetCDF libraries. Makefiles are provided for UNIX, LINUX, and MAC X OS.
[1] Costa, A., Macedonio, G., Folch, A. (2006). A three-dimensional Eulerian model for transport and deposition of volcanic ashes. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 241 (3-4), 634-647. pdf
[2] Folch, A., Jorba, O., and Viramonte, J. (2008). Volcanic ash forecast - application to the May 2008 Chaitén eruption, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 927-940. pdf
[3] Scollo, S., A. Folch, A. Costa (2008). A parametric and comparative study of different tephra fallout models, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 176, 199-211. pdf
[4] Folch A., C. Cavazzoni, A. Costa, G. Macedonio (2008). An automatic procedure to forecast tephra fallout, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 177, 767-777. pdf
[5] Macedonio G., A. Costa, A. Folch (2008). Ash fallout scenarios at Vesuvius: Numerical simulations and implications for hazard assessment, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 178, 366-377. pdf
[6] Folch A., Costa A., Macedonio G. (2009). FALL3D: A Computational Model for Volcanic Ash Transport and Deposition, Comput. Geosci., doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2008.08.008. pdf
[7] Scollo S., Prestifilippo M., Spata G., D'Agostino M., Coltelli M. (2009). Monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 1573-1585. pdf
[8] Costa A., A. Folch, G. Macedonio (2010). A Model for Wet Aggregation of Ash Particles in Volcanic Plumes and Clouds: I. Theoretical Formulation, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 115, B09201, doi:10.1029/2009JB007175. pdf
[9] Folch A., A. Costa, A. Durant,G. Macedonio (2010). A Model for Wet Aggregation of Ash Particles in Volcanic Plumes and Clouds: II. Model Application, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 115, B09202, doi:10.1029/2009JB007176. pdf
[10] Folch A., Sulpizio R. (2010). Evaluating long-range volcanic ash hazard using supercomputing facilities: application to Somma-Vesuvius (Italy), and consequences for civil aviation over the Central Mediterranean Area, Bull. Volc., Vol. 72 (9), 1039-1059, doi:10.1007/s00445-010-0386-3 pdf
[11] Scollo S., A. Folch, M. Coltelli, V.J. Realmuto (2010). Three-dimensional volcanic aerosol dispersal: A comparison between Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) data and numerical simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D24210, doi:10.1029/2009JD013162 pdf
[12] Corradini S., Merucci L., Folch A. (2011). Volcanic Ash Cloud Properties: Comparison Between MODIS Satellite Retrievals and FALL3D Transport Model, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 8, 248-252, doi:10.1109/LGRS.2010.2064156 pdf
[13] Folch A., Costa A., Basart S. (2012). Validation of the FALL3D ash dispersion model using observations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull volcanic ash cloud, Atmos. Environ., Vol. 48, 165-183, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.06.072 pdf
[14] Scaini C., Folch A., Navarro M. (2012). Tephra hazard assessment at Concepción Volcano, Nicaragua, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., Volumes 219-220, 41-51 doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.01.007 pdf
[15] Costa A., Folch A., Macedonio G., Giaccio B., Isaia R., Smith V.C. (2012) Quantifying volcanic ash dispersal and impact from Campanian Ignimbrite super-eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 39, L10310, doi:10.1029/2012GL051605 pdf
[16] Bonasia R., Costa A., Folch A., Capra L., Macedonio G. (2012). Numerical simulation of tephra transport and deposition of the 1982 El Chichon eruption, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., Vol. 231-232, 39-49, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.04.006 pdf
[17] Sulpizio R., Folch A., Costa A., Scaini C., Dellino P. (2012) Hazard assessment of far-range volcanic ash dispersal from a violent Strombolian eruption at Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Naples, Italy: Implications on civil aviation, Bull. Volc., Vol. 74, 2205-2218, doi: 10.1007/s00445-012-0656-3 pdf
[18] Collini, E., Osores, S., Folch, A., Viramonte, J.G., Villarosa, G., Salmuni, G. (2013). Volcanic ash forecast during the June 2011 Cordon-Caulle, Natural Hazards, Vol. 66 (2), 389-412, doi:10.1007/s11069- 012-0492-y pdf
[19] Osores, M.S., Folch, A., Collini, E., Villarosa, G., Durant, A., Pujol, G., Viramonte, J.G. (2013). Validation of the FALL3D model for the 2008 Chaiten eruption using field, laboratory and satellite data, Andean Geology, 40 (2): 262-276, doi:10.5027/andgeoV40n2-a05 pdf
[20] Folch, A., Mingari L., Osores, M.S., Collini, E. (2013). Modeling volcanic ash resuspension. Application to the 14-18 October 2011 outbreak episode in Central Patagonia, Argentina, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 119-133, doi:10.5194/nhess-14-119-2014 pdf
[21] Costa A., Folch A., Macedonio G. (2013) Density-driven transport in the umbrella region of volcanic clouds: Implications for tephra dispersion models, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 40, 1-5, doi: 10.1002/grl.50942 pdf
[22] Costa A., Smith V.C., Macedonio G., Matthews N. (2014) The magnitude and impact of the Youngest Toba Tuff super-eruption, Front. Earth Sci., Vol. 2, 16, doi: 10.3389/feart.2014.00016 pdf
[23] Selva J., Costa A., Sandri L., Macedonio G., Marzocchi W. (2014) Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: a case study for tephra fallout, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 119 (12), 1-22, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011252 pdf
[24] Bonasia R., Scaini C., Capra L., Nathenson M., Arana-Salinas L., Siebe C., Folch A. (2014), Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico): implications on civil aviation, Bull. Volcanol., Vol. 76 (1), 789, doi: 10.1007/s00445-013-0789-z pdf
[25] Parra R. Bernard B., b, Narvaez D., Le Pennec J.L., Hasselle N, Folch A. (2016) Eruption Source Parameters for forecasting ash dispersion and deposition from vulcanian eruptions at Tungurahua volcano: Insights from field data from the July 2013 eruption, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., Vol. 309, 1-13, doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.11.001 pdf
[26] Marti A., Folch A., Costa A., Engwell A. (2016) Reconstructing the plinian and co-ignimbrite sources of large volcanic eruptions: a novel approach for the Campanian Ignimbrite, Nature Sci. Rep., 6, 21220, 1-11; doi:10.1038/srep21220 pdf
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FALL3D-7.1 code Copyright (C) 2016 Arnau Folch, Antonio Costa, Giovanni Macedonio. This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, visit http://www.gnu.org/licenses/
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