Osservatorio Vesuviano
HAZMAP is a code for the solution of the equation of diffusion, transport and sedimentation of small particles in order to model the dispersion of ash generated by a convective column. The model simplifies the advection-diffusion-sedimentation equation for volcanic ash transport in the atmosphere from three to two spatial dimensions and uses a semi-analytical approach that greatly reduces the required computer time and memory. The model needs the definition of the physical system (spatial distribution of the point sources, total erupted mass, settling velocity model, wind velocity profile, atmospheric turbulent diffusion coefficients) and of a computational grid.
  • HAZMAP 2.1 (F77 version. Release May 2007). Obsolete.
  • HAZMAP 2.4 (F90 version. Release Mar 2011).
  • HAZMAP 2.4.2 (F90 version. Release Feb 2014).
  • HAZMAP 2.4.4 (F90 version. Release Jan 2016).
  • HAZMAP 2.4.7 (F90 version. Release mar 2023).
  • HAZMAP 2.5.2 (F90 version. Release Mar 2023).
    • Characteristics: Written in FORTRAN90. Steady. Outputs total values of mass accumulation on the ground. Produces hazard maps. In this version settling velocities can be calculated directly as function of particle diameters, densities, and shapes. Supports GPU with CUDA.
    • Package: includes Hazmap 2.5.2 F90 source code and the utilitiy program haz2nc.
    • Requirements: a F90 compiler. Makefile is provided only for UNIX, LINUX, and MAC X OS.
    • Download Hazmap 2.5.2 user's manual here.
[1] Bonadonna, C., G. Macedonio, and R. Sparks (2002), Numerical modelling of tephra fallout associated with dome collapses and Vulcanian explosions: application to hazard assessment on Montserrat, in The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999, edited by T. Druitt and B. Kokelaar, pp. 517-537, Geol. Soc., London. pdf
[2] Macedonio G., Costa A., Longo A. (2005). A computer model for volcanic ash fallout and assessment of subsequent hazard. Comput. Geosci., 31 (7), 837-845. pdf
[3] Pfeiffer, T., Costa, A., Macedonio, G. (2005). A model for the numerical simulation of tephra fall deposits. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 140, 273-294. pdf
[4] Macedonio G., Costa A., Folch A. (2008) Ash fallout scenarios at Vesuvius: numerical simulations and implications for hazard assessment, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., Vol. 178 (3): 366-377, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.08.014. pdf
[5] Scollo, S., A. Folch, A. Costa (2008). A parametric and comparative study of different tephra fallout models, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 176, 199-211. pdf
[6] Folch A., C. Cavazzoni, A. Costa, G. Macedonio (2008). An automatic procedure to forecast tephra fallout, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 177, 767-777. pdf
[7] Cole, P., Pacheco, J.M., Gunasekera, R., Queiroz, G., Gonçalves, P., Gaspar, J.L. (2008) Contrasting styles of explosive eruption at Sete Cidades, São Miguel, Azores, in the last 5000 years: Hazard implications from modelling, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 178 (3), 574-591, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.01.008 pdf
[8] Capra, L., Norini, G., Groppelli, G., Macías, J.L., Arce, J.L. (2008) Volcanic hazard zonation of Nevado de Toluca Volcano, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 176, 469-484, doi:j.jvolgeores.2008.04.016 pdf
[9] Spence, R., Komorowski, J.-C., Saito, K., Brown, A., Pomonis, A., Toyos, G., Baxter, P. (2008) Modelling the impact of a hypothetical sub-Plinian eruption at La Soufrière of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 178(3), 516-528, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.03.016 pdf
[10] Costa A., Dell'Erba F., Di Vito M.A, Isaia R., Macedonio, G., Orsi G., Pfeiffer T. (2009). Tephra fallout hazard assessment at the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) , Bull. Volcanol., doi: 10.1007/s00445-008-0220-3. pdf
[11] Scollo S., Prestifilippo M., Spata G., D'Agostino M., Coltelli M. (2009). Monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 1573-1585. pdf
[12] Bonasia R., Macedonio G., Costa A., Mele D., Sulpizio R. (2010) Numerical inversion and analysis of tephra fallout deposits from the 472 AD sub-Plinian eruption at Vesuvius (Italy) through a new best-fit procedure, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., Vol. 189: 238-246, doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.11.009. pdf
[13] Selva J., Costa A., Sandri L., Marzocchi W. (2010) BET VH: Exploring the influence of natural uncertainties on long-term hazard from tephra fallout at Campi Flegrei (Italy). Bull. Volcanol., Vol. 72: 717-733, doi: 10.1007/s00445-010-0358-7. pdf
[14] Bonasia R., Capra L., Costa A., Macedonio G., Saucedo R. (2011) Tephra fallout hazard assessment for a Plinian eruption scenario at Volcan de Colima (Mexico), J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., Vol. 203, 12-22, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.03.006. pdf
[15] Bonasia R., Costa A., Folch A., Capra L., Macedonio G. (2012) Numerical simulation of tephra transport and deposition of the 1982 El Chichon eruption, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.04.006 pdf
[16] Macedonio G., Costa A. (2012) Brief Communication: Rain effect on the load of tephra deposits, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., Vol. 12, 1229-1233, doi: 10.5194/nhess-12-1229-2012 pdf
[17] Selva J., Costa A., Sandri L., Macedonio G., Marzocchi W. (2014) Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: a case study for tephra fallout, J. Geophys. Res., 119 (12), 1-22, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011252 pdf
[18] Tonini C., Sandri L., Costa A., Selva J. (2015) Brief Communication: The effect of submerged vents on probabilistic hazard assessment for tephra fallout, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 409-415, doi:10.5194/nhess-15-409-2015 pdf
[19] Macedonio G., Costa A., Scollo S., Neri A. (2016) Effects of eruption source parameter variation and meteorological dataset on tephra fallout hazard assessment: Example form Vesuvius (Italy), J. Appl. Volcanol., doi:10.1186/s13617-016-0045-2 pdf
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Hazmap-2.5.2 code Copyright (C) 2023 Giovanni Macedonio, Antonio Costa. This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, visit http://www.gnu.org/licenses/
Version Hazmap 2.5.2
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